August 2015 Science Bulletin #1: POPs exposure hinders neurodevelopment; PFCs reduce bone density; and more

August 6, 2015 at 1:44 pm | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment

August 2015 Science Bulletin #1:
Human Research

Air pollution, mortality | Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS). After adjustment for individual and area-specific confounders, for each 10-μg/m3 increase, PM10 and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.09 and HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03, respectively], respiratory mortality (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17 and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, respectively), and lung cancer mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.30 and HR = 1.10 95% CI: 1.09, 1.11, respectively). Furthermore, PM10 was associated with circulatory disease mortality (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08).

POPs, infant growth | Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of POPs exposure and infant growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modelling. Prenatal p,p´-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels.

Flame retardants, neurodevelopment | Association between prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and young children’s neurodevelopment in China. At 12 months of age, neither the individual nor total (the sum of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153) congener levels were associated with any of the four domain DQs. However, at 24 months of age, a 10-fold increase in BDE-99 levels was associated with a 2.16-point decrease [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.52, -0.20] in language domain DQs and a 10-fold increase in BDE-47 levels was associated with a 1.89-point decrease (95% CI: -3.75, -0.03) in social domain DQs.

PFCs, bone density | Association of Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteoporosis in the U.S. Population in NHANES 2009-2010. In a representative sample of the adult US population, serum PFAS concentrations were associated with lower bone mineral density, with variation according to specific PFAS and bone sites assessed. Most associations were limited to women. Osteoporosis in women also was associated with PFAS exposures, based on a small number of cases.

EDCs, hypospadia | Is Hypospadias Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors? A French Collaborative Controlled Study of a Cohort of 300 Consecutive Children without Genetic Defect. This multicenter prospective controlled study with a homogeneous cohort of hypospadiac boys without genetic defects strongly suggests that EDCs are a risk factor for hypospadias through occupational and environmental exposure during fetal life. The association of various types of exposures may increase this risk.

July 2015 News Bulletin: chemicals in textiles; a popcorn problem

July 16, 2015 at 12:35 pm | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment

July 2015 News Bulletin

BPA still a favorite among canned good brands. In a survey of more than 250 brands of canned food, researchers found that more than 44 percent use bisphenol-A lined cans for some or all of their products. With 109 brands not responding or providing enough information, that number could be a lot higher. (EHN)

Chemicals in Your Popcorn? What do a pizza box, a polar bear and you have in common? All carry a kind of industrial toxicant called poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances, or PFASs, that do two things: They make life convenient, and they also appear to increase the risk of cancer. (NYT)

Cotton, cashmere, chemicals – what really goes into making our clothes? As the federal agency responsible for enforcing the Textile Products Identification Act and related laws, the FTC makes sure clothing is accurately labeled with its fabric content. But it turns out, apart from these laws and a few others, there is no overarching U.S. law that regulates or requires listing of materials outside of fabrics that go into producing our clothing. Why does this matter? Because manufacturers use hundreds of substances to produce clothing that don’t show up on clothing labels. And many of these are hazardous to the environment and to human health. (Ensia)

Echa committee recommends BPA restriction in thermal paper. Presence in till receipts presents risk to workers, says Rac. (ChemicalWatch, subscription only)

Everyday plastics plunge men into fertility crisis. Plastics have caused a sharp decline in fertility among men, leaving only one in four with “good” sperm, scientists say. Chemicals called phthalates — found in plastics and products such as shower curtains, car dashboards and cleaning materials — can be breathed in, consumed or absorbed through the skin of pregnant women, inhibiting testosterone production in male foetuses, leading to sons with low sperm counts. (Times, subscription only)

Regulators And Retailers Raise Pressure On Phthalates. Phthalates provide flexibility to vinyl products, but they are also controversial. Concerns—justified or not—have been bubbling up for more than a decade over their potential to disrupt hormones and cause reproductive and developmental effects. As a result, the plasticizer industry is in a state of flux, scrambling to adapt to ever-changing demands from regulators and the marketplace. (Chemical & Engineering News)

July 2015 Science Bulletin #2: EDC mixtures affect mammary gland development and parenting behaviours

July 14, 2015 at 12:35 pm | Posted in News and Science Bulletins | Leave a comment
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July 2015 Science Bulletin #2:
Non-human research

EDCs, mammary gland development | Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats. Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels.

EDCs, parenting behaviours | Disruption of Parenting Behaviors in California Mice, a Monogamous Rodent Species, by Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Females exposed to either BPA or EE spent less time nursing, grooming and being associated with their pups than controls, although there was little consequence on their weight gain. Care of pups by males was less affected by exposure to BPA and EE, but control, non-exposed females appeared able to “sense” a male partner previously exposed to either compound and, as a consequence, reduced their own parental investment in offspring from such pairings.

BPS, heart rhythm | Rapid Responses and Mechanism of Action for Low-Dose Bisphenol S on ex Vivo Rat Hearts and Isolated Myocytes: Evidence of Female-Specific Proarrhythmic Effects. Rapid exposure to low-dose BPS showed proarrhythmic impact on female rat hearts; these effects at the organ, cellular, and molecular levels are remarkably similar to those reported for BPA. Evaluation of the bioactivity and safety of BPS and other BPA analogs is necessary before they are used as BPA alternatives in consumer products.

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