October Science Bulletin #1
Pregnancy loss, phthalates | Levels of Phthalate Metabolites in Urine of Pregnant Women and Risk of Clinical Pregnancy Loss. Toxicological studies have shown that phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of widely used and environmentally prevalent chemicals, can increase the abortion rate in animals, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. This study of 300 women provides human evidence that phthalate exposure could be associated with miscarriage, mostly between 5 and 13 weeks of pregnancy.
Pesticides, childhood cancer | Residential Exposure to Pesticide During Childhood and Childhood Cancers: A Meta-Analysis. Results from this meta-analysis indicated that children exposed to indoor insecticides would have a higher risk of childhood hematopoietic cancers. Additional research is needed to confirm the association between residential indoor pesticide exposures and childhood cancers. Meanwhile, preventive measures should be considered to reduce children’s exposure to pesticides at home.
Low infant birth weight, BPA | Maternal urinary bisphenol A levels and infant low birth weight: A nested case-control study of the Health Baby Cohort in China. Mothers with LBW infants had significantly higher urinary BPA levels (median: 4.70μg/L) than the control mothers (median: 2.25μg/L) (p<0.05). Increased risk of LBW was associated with higher maternal urinary levels of BPA [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.13 for the medium tertile, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 8.08; adjusted OR=2.49 for the highest tertile, 95% CI: 0.98, 6.36]. The association was more pronounced among female infants than among male infants, with a statistical evidence of heterogeneity in risk (p=0.03).
Genital malformation, POPs | Association between levels of persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue and cryptorchidism in early childhood: a case-control study. Prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCDD/F-like PCBs may be associated with increased risk for cryptorchidism. Our finding does not exclude the possibility of an association between the exposure to PBDEs and cryptorchidism.
Childhood tremor, POPs | Prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos and childhood tremor. Compared to all other children, those with prenatal CPF exposure in the upper quartile range (n=43) were more likely to exhibit mild or mild to moderate tremor (≥1) in either arm (p=0.03), both arms (p=0.02), the dominant arm (p=0.01), and the non-dominant arm (p=0.055). Logistic regression analyses showed significant CPF effects on tremor in both arms, either arm, the dominant arm (p-values <0.05), and the non-dominant arm (p=0.06), after adjustment for sex, age at testing, ethnicity, and medication.
September News Bulletin
Drugging the Environment. Humans have spiked ecosystems with a flood of active pharmaceuticals. The drugs are feminizing male fish, confusing birds, and worrying scientists. “Legislation is not protecting ecosystems at the moment,” says Kathryn Arnold, an ecologist at the University of York in the U.K., where there are also no regulations for pharmaceuticals in water. (The Scientist)
Supermarkets and garden centres ban Roundup weedkiller suspected of causing cancer. In Germany, for example, retailers have started removing glyphosate herbicides from their shelves, with one state protection minister calling for a ban on the use of the chemical by the general public. “This pesticide should not be found in gardens, parks or on children’s playgrounds. I also do not think use in private gardens is appropriate,” explained Lower Saxony’s consumer protection minister Christian Meyer. (The Guardian)
September Science Bulletin #2: developmental toxicity research needs; “manufacturing doubt” around EDCsSeptember 11, 2015 at 12:45 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
September Science Bulletin #2:
Science policy and non-human research
Developmental toxicity | Life-Long Implications of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Stressors: New Perspectives. Current testing paradigms do not allow proper characterization of developmental risk factors and their interactions. Thus, relevant exposure levels and combinations for testing must be identified from human exposure situations and outcome assessments. Testing of potential underpinning mechanisms and biomarker development require laboratory animal models and in vitro approaches. Only few large-scale birth cohorts exist, and collaboration between birth cohorts on a global scale should be facilitated.
EDCs, science and policy | Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science – A rebuttal of industry-sponsored critical comments on the UNEP/WHO report “State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012”. We conclude that Lamb et al.’s attempt of deconstructing the UNEP/WHO (2013) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers.
Pesticides, public health | GMOs, Herbicides, and Public Health. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are not high on most physicians’ worry lists. If we think at all about biotechnology, most of us probably focus on direct threats to human health, such as prospects for converting pathogens to biologic weapons or the implications of new technologies for editing the human germline. But while those debates simmer, the application of biotechnology to agriculture has been rapid and aggressive.
Safer alternatives | Alternatives Assessment Frameworks: Research Needs for the Informed Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals. While alternatives assessment is becoming an important science policy field, there is a need for greater cross-disciplinary collaboration to refine methodologies in support of the informed substitution and design of safer chemicals, materials, and products. Case studies can provide concrete lessons to improve alternatives assessment.
Glyphosate, liver | Transcriptome profile analysis reflects rat liver and kidney damage following chronic ultra-low dose Roundup exposure. A 2-year study in rats administering 0.1 ppb Roundup (50 ng/L glyphosate equivalent) via drinking water (giving a daily intake of 4 ng/kg bw/day of glyphosate) was conducted. A marked increased incidence of anatomorphological and blood/urine biochemical changes was indicative of liver and kidney structure and functional pathology. In order to confirm these findings we have conducted a transcriptome microarray analysis of the liver and kidneys from these same animals.