September News Bulletin
Drugging the Environment. Humans have spiked ecosystems with a flood of active pharmaceuticals. The drugs are feminizing male fish, confusing birds, and worrying scientists. “Legislation is not protecting ecosystems at the moment,” says Kathryn Arnold, an ecologist at the University of York in the U.K., where there are also no regulations for pharmaceuticals in water. (The Scientist)
Supermarkets and garden centres ban Roundup weedkiller suspected of causing cancer. In Germany, for example, retailers have started removing glyphosate herbicides from their shelves, with one state protection minister calling for a ban on the use of the chemical by the general public. “This pesticide should not be found in gardens, parks or on children’s playgrounds. I also do not think use in private gardens is appropriate,” explained Lower Saxony’s consumer protection minister Christian Meyer. (The Guardian)
September Science Bulletin #2: developmental toxicity research needs; “manufacturing doubt” around EDCsSeptember 11, 2015 at 12:45 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
September Science Bulletin #2:
Science policy and non-human research
Developmental toxicity | Life-Long Implications of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Stressors: New Perspectives. Current testing paradigms do not allow proper characterization of developmental risk factors and their interactions. Thus, relevant exposure levels and combinations for testing must be identified from human exposure situations and outcome assessments. Testing of potential underpinning mechanisms and biomarker development require laboratory animal models and in vitro approaches. Only few large-scale birth cohorts exist, and collaboration between birth cohorts on a global scale should be facilitated.
EDCs, science and policy | Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science – A rebuttal of industry-sponsored critical comments on the UNEP/WHO report “State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012”. We conclude that Lamb et al.’s attempt of deconstructing the UNEP/WHO (2013) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers.
Pesticides, public health | GMOs, Herbicides, and Public Health. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are not high on most physicians’ worry lists. If we think at all about biotechnology, most of us probably focus on direct threats to human health, such as prospects for converting pathogens to biologic weapons or the implications of new technologies for editing the human germline. But while those debates simmer, the application of biotechnology to agriculture has been rapid and aggressive.
Safer alternatives | Alternatives Assessment Frameworks: Research Needs for the Informed Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals. While alternatives assessment is becoming an important science policy field, there is a need for greater cross-disciplinary collaboration to refine methodologies in support of the informed substitution and design of safer chemicals, materials, and products. Case studies can provide concrete lessons to improve alternatives assessment.
Glyphosate, liver | Transcriptome profile analysis reflects rat liver and kidney damage following chronic ultra-low dose Roundup exposure. A 2-year study in rats administering 0.1 ppb Roundup (50 ng/L glyphosate equivalent) via drinking water (giving a daily intake of 4 ng/kg bw/day of glyphosate) was conducted. A marked increased incidence of anatomorphological and blood/urine biochemical changes was indicative of liver and kidney structure and functional pathology. In order to confirm these findings we have conducted a transcriptome microarray analysis of the liver and kidneys from these same animals.
Tags: breast development, breast-feeding, Human exposure, serum concentrations
September Science Bulletin #1:
Exposure, PFCs | Breastfeeding as an Exposure Pathway for Perfluorinated Alkylates. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with increases of most PFAS concentrations by up to 30% per month, with lower increases during partial breast-feeding. In contrast to this main pattern, perfluorohexanesulfonate was not affected by breast-feeding. After cessation of breastfeeding, all serum concentrations decreased.
Puberty, phenols | Environmental phenols and pubertal development in girls. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5-6months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64-0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65-0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol: 4-9months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96-1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09-1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size.
Male fertility, phthalates | Phthalate exposure and reproductive parameters in young men from the general Swedish population. DEHP metabolite levels, particularly urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), were negatively associated with progressive sperm motility, which was 11 (95% CI: 5.0-17) percentage points lower in the highest quartile of MECPP than in the lowest. Further, men in the highest quartile of the DEHP metabolite monoethylhexyl phthalate had 27% (95% CI: 5.5%-53%) higher HDS than men in the lowest quartile.
Male fertility, EDCs | Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and fertility: A case-control study in male subfertility patients. Our study in men showed that internal body concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals are associated with an increased risk of subfertility together with alterations in hormone levels. The results emphasize the importance to reduce chemicals in the environment in order to safeguard male fertility.